Parkinson’s disease has been classified into five stages by Hoehn and Yahr. Their classification is primarily based on the severity of symptoms and the degree of disability the patient experiences.
When prescribing therapy, the neurologist will take into account the stage at which the patient is perceived to be, among other issues.
Stage 1 is called unilateral disease. The term indicates that only one particular side of the body shows symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
This is deemed an early stage of the illness and could final for several years. Neuroprotective remedy is typical at this stage. This treatment aims to avoid additional damage to the nervous program.
Vitamin E was utilised at this stage, but a lot of researchers are of the opinion that this is not very powerful. A selective MAO-B inhibitor called Rasigiline has shown guarantee.
Stage two of Parkinson’s disease is labeled bilateral illness. Meaning, symptoms of Parkinson’s now show up on both sides of the physique. The illness is deemed to be at Stage two even if there is an insignificant symptom (an occasional tremor, for example) on the side of the body that was symptom-free earlier.
Recent therapies at this stage incorporate use of dopamine agonists. Till some years ago, dopamine agonists were utilised only at later stages of the disease. Presently, researchers are of the view that if such treatment is began earlier, complications from making use of drugs like Levodopa may not arise at later stages.
The illness is mentioned to be at stage three when symptoms show progression and especially when the patient has difficulty in preserving their posture. Symptoms at this stage consist of postural instability and falling down.
Traditionally, this is the stage at which dopamine agonists or Levodopa was prescribed, but as pointed out above, some of these drugs are now used at earlier stages itself.
Stage 4 occurs when there is an improve in the severity of symptoms including postural instability and falling. Surgery is 1 selection for therapy at this stage. Surgery can alleviate some of the symptoms. Nevertheless, this is typically advisable only for relatively young sufferers who are in excellent overall health otherwise.
Stage 5 is the most sophisticated stage of Parkinson’s illness. The patient is typically wheelchair bound. Walking is achievable only with help.
Levodopa continues to be a prescribed drug at this stage, along with a COMT inhibitor, which guarantees that the effects last longer. Surgery may also be an option, including pallidotomy, which destroys a little group of brain cells. This assists steer clear of the rigidity often experienced with Parkinson’s illness and could stop tremors as well.
An additional possible remedy is deep brain stimulation, where electrodes are implanted into the brain tissue and stimulated with low level electric currents.
The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease progress as the patient moves from 1 stage to the subsequent. Ongoing analysis is generating new treatment options which includes stem cell implants and new drugs.
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